Alcohol is a chemical produced from raw materials of plant containing starch, such as cassava, sweet potato, corn, sago, and is usually called the bio - ethanol. Cassava, sweet potato, and maize crops are commonly planted people in almost all areas in Indonesia, so it is a type of plant the plant to be considered as a potential source of raw material of making bio - ethanol or gasohol. However, from all types of plants, cassava is hektarnya that each plant can produce the most ethanol. In addition consideration of use cassava as a raw material for the production of bio-ethanol is also based on economic considerations. Consideration of economy of materials The raw materials are not only includes the price of production plants as raw material, but also includes the cost of the plant, the cost of procurement of raw material production, and cost raw material to produce each liter ethanol / bio-ethanol. In general, ethanol / bio-ethanol can be used as a raw material for industry alcohol derivative, mixture for miras, the pharmaceutical industry base, a mixture of fuel for vehicles. Given that the ethanol / bio-ethanol a wide range, so that the grade ethanol must be used according to different use. For ethanol / bio-ethanol is have a grade 90-96,5% vol can be used in the industry, while ethanol/bio- grade ethanol that have 96-99,5% vol can be used as a mixture for miras basic industrial materials and pharmaceuticals. With the size of the different grade ethanol/bio- ethanol mixture is used as fuel for vehicles that must be truly anhydrous dry and not so corrosive, so the ethanol / bio-ethanol must have a grade of 99,5-100% vol. Differences in the size of the grade will affect the conversion process of carbohydrate into sugar (glucose) water soluble. Draws from the annotations, disusunlah paper entitled "Process Technology Bio-ethanol production "
2. PRODUCTION PROSES BIO-ethanol
Production of ethanol / bio-ethanol (alcohol) with the raw materials that contain starch plant or karbohydrat, made through the conversion process carbohydrates into sugar (glucose) dissolved water. Conversion of raw materials that plants contain starch or molasses and karbohydrat into bio-ethanol. Glucose can be made from starch-patian, the process can pembuatannya be based on the adjuvant substances used, namely Hydrolisa acid and Hydrolisa enzyme. Based on these two types of hydrolisa is, at this time hydrolisa enzyme more developed, while hydrolisa acid (eg with acid sulphate) may be less developed, so that the process the making of glucose from starch-patian now used with hydrolisa enzyme. In the process of carbohydrate conversion into sugar (glucose) water soluble done with the addition of water and the enzyme, then the process is done fermentation or the fermentation of sugar into ethanol by adding yeast or yeast. In addition to ethanol / bio-ethanol can be produced from raw materials of plant containing starch or karbohydrat, can also be produced from plant materials containing cellulose, lignin, but the result of the process penggulaannya become more difficult, thus making ethanol / bio-ethanol from cellulose need not be recommended. Although the production techniques ethanol/bio- ethanol is a technique that has been long known, but the ethanol / bio-ethanol to require fuel ethanol vehicles with particular characteristics which require technology that is relatively new in Indonesia, among others, the energy balance (energy balance) and the efficiency of production, so more research information about the ethanol production process technology still needs to be done. In short the process of production technology, ethanol / bio-ethanol can be divided into three phases, namely gelatinasi, sakharifikasi, and fermentation.
- Proses Gelatinasi Gelatinasi In the process, the raw material cassava, sweet potato, or corn destroyed and mixed into the water so that the pulp, which is estimated starch contains 27-30 percent. Then the starch is cooked porridge or heated for 2 hours so that the gel form. The process is gelatinasi can be done with 2 ways, namely: • The pulp starch heated to 130oC for 30 minutes, then cooled to reach temperature of 95oC is estimated will take approximately ¼ hours. Temperature is 95 OC maintained for about 1 ¼ hours, so the total time needed to reach 2 hours. • The pulp starch plus enzyme termamyl directly heated until the temperature reached 130 OC for 2 hours. Gelatinasi first way, that is how gradual warming has benefits, namely at a temperature of 95 OC termamyl activity is the most high, so that the resulting yeast active yeast or quick. Heating with high temperature (130oC) on the first way is to starch granula split, so that happens more easily in contact with water enzyme. Treatment at a temperature high can also work for the sterilization of materials, so that the material terkontaminasi is not easy. Gelatinasi both ways, that is how direct heating (with gelatinasi enzyme termamyl) on the temperature 130oC produces results that are less good, because the yeast activity. This is caused gelatinasi with the enzyme at a temperature of 130oC will tri-phenyl-furane have toxic nature of the yeast. Gelatinasi on the high temperature will also affect the decrease in activity termamyl, because the activities termamyl akan decrease after passing through the temperature 95oC. In addition, the high temperature will also cause the half life of the termamyl short, as an example the temperature 93oC, half life of termamyl is 1500 minutes, while the temperature 107oC, termamyl half life is 40 minutes (Wasito, 1981). Results from gelatinasi are two ways to be refrigerated until you reach 55oC, and then added to the SAN and the next sakharifikasi fermented with yeast (yeast) Saccharomyzes ceraviseze.
- Fermentasi The fermentation process is intended to change the glucose into ethanol / bio-ethanol (alcohol) by using yeast. Alcohol obtained from fermentation process of this, usually with alcohol content 8 to 10 percent volume. Meanwhile, when the fermentation is used in raw material sugar molases), the process of making ethanol can be more quickly. Making ethanol from molases also have another advantage, namely the fermentation vessel requires a smaller. Ethanol produced in the fermentation process should be cleared with the quality of substances-substances that are not needed. Alcohol produced from the fermentation process is usually still contain gas - CO2 gas, among others (arising from the conversion of glucose into ethanol / bio-ethanol) and the aldehyde that need to be cleaned. CO2 gas in the fermentation results are usually reached 35 percent of volume, so to get the ethanol / bio-ethanol a good quality, ethanol / bio-ethanol must be cleaned from the gas. The process of cleaning (washing) is done with the CO2 filter ethanol / bio-ethanol which is bound by CO2, so it can be ethanol / bio-ethanol a clean gas from the CO2). Dry ethanol / bio-ethanol produced from the fermentation process, usually only reaches 8 to 10 per cent only, so to get the ethanol alcohol berkadar the 95 percent needed another process, which is a process of distillation. Distillation process was conducted through two levels, ie level with the first beer column and level with the second rectifying column. Definition of degree of alcohol or ethanol / bio-ethanol in the% (percent) volume is the volume of ethanol in the temperature 15oC in the 100 unit volume of ethanol solution on a certain temperature (measurement). "Based on Alcohol BKS oil, a standard measurement temperature is 27.5 OC and measure the temperature at 95.5% OC 27.5 or 96.2% in the temperature 15oC (Wasito, 1981). In general, fermentation is the result of bio-ethanol, or alcohol have a purity of about 30 - 40% and has not been loaded classified as ethanol-based fuel. In order to achieve the purity above 95%, then lakohol results should be through a fermentation process destilasi.
- Distillation: As mentioned above, to purify a bioetanol berkadar more than 95% that can be used as fuel, alcohol fermentation results that have a purity of 40% must pass before destilasi process to separate the alcohol with water to take into account boiling point difference between the two materials are then diembunkan again. material from the starch-patian start of the conveyor, gelatinisasi, fermentation, destilasi to storage. To obtain bio-ethanol with a purity higher than 99.5% or general called based ethanol fuel, a problem that arises is the difficulty separating the hydrogen bound in the chemical structure of alcohol in a way destilasi normal, so to get a fuel grade ethanol further purification was conducted with the Azeotropic destilasi.
- Production Cost per Liter of Baku Bioetanol Cassava Production cost includes the cost of the investment cost is calculated based on interest and return on investment, operating and maintenance costs and material costs. Facilities investment cost of bio-ethanol production are shown in Table 2. With a production capacity of 8000 lityer per hour, and factory work during 320 days in 1 year, aged 15 years and live instruments, the cost of operation -- treatment of 1.5% (not including raw materials and utilities) and interest bank 10%, then the method of calculation of decline is double the cost of investment and the return of Rp. 972 per liter of bio-ethanol. Table 1 shows that to convert cassava into 1 liter of bio - ethanol required approximately 6.5 kg of cassava, so that when the price of cassava of Rp 180 per kg (B2TP, 2005) will be required cost of Rp cassava 1384.5. In addition to cassava, the conversion of raw materials which contain plant karbohydrat starch or a bio-material is required ethonal process parlormaid the making of glucose and adjuvant or fermentation process of sugar fermentation become a type of ethanol, plus the cost of consumption, investment and operation - treatment is the production cost is per liter of bio-ethanol.
3. CONSTRAINTS DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION EFFORTS BIO-ethanol Production of ethanol / bio-ethanol must consider two from keekonomiannya the interests of the producers ethanol / bio-ethanol that require material raw materials production plants with low prices, and farmers in terms of producer who want the raw material production plants with a high price and the low cost of production. This caused the value of crop production as expenses for the purchase of raw materials for producers ethanol / bio-ethanol. Therefore, the economy program ethanol / bio-ethanol fuel for vehicles is not only determined by the the price of premium fuel, but also determined by the price of raw materials the making of ethanol / bio-ethanol production in this plant.
- Development constraints Bio-ethanol Production In the program meet the ethanol / bio-ethanol for fuel vehicles, the government has made road map technology, bio-ethanol, which is years in the period 2005-2010 can take advantage of bio-ethanol of 2% of consumption of premium (0.43 million kl), and years in the period 2011-2015, percentage utilization of bio-ethanol increased to 3% of consumption premium (1.0 million kl), and next year in the period 2016-2025, percentage utilization of bio-ethanol to be increased 5% of consumption premium (2.8 million kl). However, the road map for technology, bio - ethanol must involve many parties, both in terms of both Government and Private. Given that up to this time there is no synergy is realized in one document a comprehensive strategic plan and integrated, so that will arise several obstacles must be overcome. Some of these constraints, including: Plan the development of land for raw materials of plant bio - ethanol produced by the Department of Agriculture and the Ministry of Forestry has not been directly associated with the development plan of bio - ethanol in the energy sector; Plan of the Government in the development of energy and instruments policies that are required in the development of bio-ethanol has not been associated directly with the plan of the business of bio-ethanol and management of agricultural land to produce a very large material raw materials and • Uncertainty in the commercialization of the investment risk in the development of bio - ethanol and not terbentuknya chain governance trade of bio-ethanol. So that these obstacles can be overcome should be supported by the government policy on agriculture and forestry related to the allotment of land, policy incentives for the development of bio-ethanol, Tekno-economic and production utilization of bio-ethanol, so that there is clarity of information for entrepreneurs who interested in the business of bio-ethanol.
- Upaya Development of Bio-ethanol In developing bio-ethanol required several rare that must be made, namely: • Prepare the agenda for the joint consensus of the program of comprehensive and integrated so as to give results the concrete and the maximum, through targeting and achievements to the efforts of production, distribution and use of bio-ethanol penjabaran agenda and program implementation and the concrete. • To inventory and evaluate in detail the various opportunities and challenges for bio-ethanol investment, especially the various incentives that required • Develop governance chain of bio-ethanol trade gradually facilitated by the Government • brings together all development plans bio-ethanol from various parties Related in a "Blueprint Development of Bio-fuel" that can be grip is made for all stakeholders.
- Components Chain of Commerce Bio-ethanol Chain governance component of bio-ethanol trade starts from procurement of raw materials, the production of bio-ethanol anhydrous, mixing with the bio-ethanol premium to the market. With the rules of good, consistent, and support that can be made grip for stakeholders will be able to encourage running tata commercial bio-ethanol. Tata marine bio-ethanol can be run as a expected when there is a clear market potential for bio-ethanol. Market potential of bio - ethanol can be estimated based on the estimated needs of the bio-ethanol agreed by all parties that are poured in and the road map bio-ethanol technology, thereby encouraging the interest in developing production of bio-ethanol in Brazil.
1. Alcohol / bio-ethanol can be produced from plants that contain starch or karbohydrat, made through the conversion process carbohydrates into sugar (glucose) dissolved water. The process of glucose be based adjuvant substances used, namely Hydrolisa acid and Hydrolisa enzyme. Then do the process of fermentation or fermentation of sugar into ethanol by adding yeast or yeast.
2. Economy program utilization ethanol / bio-ethanol fuel for vehicles not only determined by the price of premium fuel, but also determined by price of raw material producing ethanol / bio-ethanol, therefore the production ethanol/bio- ethanol keekonomiannya must consider the interests of the two sides, namely the producing ethanol / bio-ethanol and of farmers in terms of raw materials.
3. There have been no synergies are realized in a plan document a comprehensive strategic and integrated, so will some of the constraints that arise must be completed. However, that obstacle can be overcome should be supported by the government policy on agriculture and forestry related to the allotment land, the policy of incentives for the development of bio-ethanol, Tekno-economic and production utilization of bio-ethanol, so that there is clarity of information for entrepreneurs who are interested in the business of bio-ethanol.
1. BPPT, Study Full Utilization Prospect Bioethanol and Biodiesel in Sector Transportation in Indonesia. 2005. 2. Balai Besar Teknologi Pati-BPPT, Tekno-Economic Feasibility Bio-ethanol As Material Alternative fuel Terbarukan, January 27, 2005. 3. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Blue Print National Energy Management 2005-2025, The National Think Energy Management, 2005. 4. Ir. Sutijastoto, MA, Energy Policy Mix, June 2005.